The world is currently experiencing a sharp rise in energy prices, mainly caused by an unprecedented increase in the price of natural gas. The significantly higher energy prices have strong ramifications for European consumers, with effects most acutely felt by low-income households. While the EU has proactively responded to the energy crisis, individual EU member states have thus far taken the lead in rolling out compensatory measures. Relief packages have been passed, aimed at shielding households from the impact of rising prices, covering a range of different measures and committing considerable funds.
In this policy brief, the authors focus on measures directed at households taken at the national level in Germany, Poland and Romania. They ask the questions: Are the measures efficient, effective, and have a long-lasting impact? Do they reach those most in need? What should be done differently in the future?