Japan is a hydrogen technology leader, with a particular focus on its application in transport, heating and energy production, and aims to strengthen its leadership through measures laid out in its hydrogen and green growth strategies. At the same time, Japan is highly dependent on energy imports and has limited domestic energy resources, both fossil and renewable (apart from its large potential for floating offshore wind). Therefore, Japan will – like many EU member states – need to become a major importer of renewable or low-carbon hydrogen to fuel its transition to net zero by 2050.
The country has already started to establish international partnerships and is leading with regard to the development of international hydrogen supply chain demonstration projects. In the medium term, Japan plans to mostly rely on blue hydrogen based on fossil fuels and CCS/CCU technology, while green hydrogen based on renewables is furthermore expected to play a major role in the long term.
This factsheet explores the current Japanese hydrogen economy, national strategies, and the opportunities and challenges for EU-Japan cooperation in establishing an international hydrogen market, supply chains, and certification and regulation of both hydrogen and related technologies.