The USA and Canada are internationally considered leaders in the use of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCU/S) technologies. North America's experience in the field goes back several decades in some cases and can therefore be insightful for the debate in other countries, such as the current development of a carbon management strategy in Germany.
While the application in North America over the last decades was primarily dominated by the use of CO2 in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery, the development of CCU/S projects can now be seen as part of the climate policy mainstream in North America. However, the evolution of the sector towards commercial scale only started around the beginning of the last decade. Research programs, technology, funding and legislation have evolved gradually since then. At the same time, the use of CCU/S is not entirely uncontroversial even in North America and local acceptance of CO2 pipelines and storage projects is often central to successful project development.
This study looks at the general context, existing funding instruments and current debates in both countries regarding CCU/S, and focusses, in particular, on the complex regulations in force along the process chain, which are heterogeneous in the region and, despite many years of development, show multiple ambiguities and even regulatory gaps. Building on this, the lessons learned from both countries are presented and general recommendations are made.