For the past several years, public services such as the provision of drinking water have undergone a long process of change worldwide. As a result, four new management approaches can be distinguished: privatization of service provision, delegation of certain services to private companies (so called Public-Private Partnerships), transfer of services to public companies and citizens’ participation. Increased participation of citizens as end users of the service often results from “public budgeting”, an approach that has been implemented e.g. in Porto Allegre, Brazil as well as in various European cities. The study, commissioned by the City of Paris, compares very different experiences with public participation in the design of water supply in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Britain and Portugal. Based on this analysis, the report provides recommendations to the City of Paris for the implementation of participatory approaches to water policy.